Archived Policies - Surgery
Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation for Malignant Astrocytomas and Gliomas
Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation is considered experimental, investigational and/or unproven as a treatment of malignant astrocytomas and gliomas, including both glioblastoma multiforme and oligodendoglioma.
NOTE: For detailed, descriptive information on stem-cell support sources, harvesting, storage and infusion, preparative regimens, including high-dose chemotherapy and reduced intensity conditioning, tandem or triple stem-cell support, donor leukocyte infusion, hematopoietic progenitor cell boost (stem-cell boost), and short tandem repeat markers see Medical Policy SUR703.002, “Stem Cells Reinfusion or Transplantation Following Chemotherapy (General Donor and Recipient Information).”
Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation
Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) refers to a procedure in which hematopoietic stem cells are infused to restore bone marrow function in cancer patients who receive bone-marrow-toxic doses of cytotoxic drugs with or without whole-body radiation therapy. Hematopoietic stem-cells may be obtained from the transplant recipient (autologous HSCT) or from a donor (allogeneic HSCT). They can be harvested from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood shortly after delivery of neonates. Although cord blood is an allogeneic source, the stem-cells in it are antigenically “naïve” and thus are associated with a lower incidence of rejection or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).
Immunologic compatibility between infused hematopoietic stem cells and the recipient is not an issue in autologous HSCT. However, immunologic compatibility between donor and patient is a critical factor for achieving a good outcome of allogeneic HSCT. Compatibility is established by typing of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) using cellular, serologic, or molecular techniques. HLA refers to the tissue type expressed at the Class I and Class II loci on chromosome 6. Depending on the disease being treated, an acceptable donor will match the patient at all or most of the HLA loci (with the exception of umbilical cord blood).
Astrocytomas and Gliomas
Diffuse fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type of brain tumor in adults. These tumors are classified histologically into 3 grades of malignancy: grade II astrocytoma, grade III anaplastic astrocytoma, and grade IV glioblastoma multiforme. Oligodendrogliomas are diffuse neoplasms that are clinically and biologically most closely related to diffuse fibrillary astrocytomas. However, these tumors generally have better prognoses than diffuse astrocytomas, with mean survival times of 10 years versus 2–3 years, respectively. In addition, oligodendrogliomas appear to be more chemosensitive than other types of astrocytomas. Glioblastoma multiforme is the most malignant stage of astrocytoma, with survival times of less than 2 years for most patients.
Treatment of primary brain tumors focuses on surgery, either with curative intent or optimal tumor debulking. Surgery may be followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. Survival after chemoradiotherapy is largely dependent on the extent of residual tumor after surgical debulking. Therefore, tumors that arise in the midline, basal ganglia, or corpus callosum or those arising in the eloquent speech or motor areas of the cortex, which typically cannot be extensively resected, have a particularly poor outcome. Treatment of children younger than 3 years is complicated by the long-term effects of radiation therapy on physical and intellectual function. Therefore, in young children, radiation of the central nervous system (CNS) is avoided whenever possible.
Astrocytomas and gliomas arise from the glial cells. Tumors arising from the neuroepithelium constitute a separate category of malignancies that include CNS neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, ependymoblastomas, and pineoblastomas. Collectively these tumors may be referred to as primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs). Ependymomas also arise from the neuroepithelium but, because of their more mature histologic appearance, are not considered a member of the PNET family.
NOTE: The use of high-dose chemotherapy in tumors arising from the neuroepithelium is addressed separately in Medical Policy SUR703.039.
High-dose chemotherapy (HDC) followed by hematopoietic stem-cell (HSC) transplant (HSCT) or stem-cell support (SCS) (i.e., blood or marrow) transplant is an effective treatment modality for many patients with certain malignancies and non-malignancies. The rationale of this treatment approach is to provide a very dose-intensive treatment in order to eradicate malignant cells followed by rescue with peripheral blood, umbilical cord blood, or bone marrow stem-cells.
Bouffet and colleagues (1) reported on a series of 22 children and young adults with high-grade gliomas treated with AuSCS. The response rate was 29% with one complete and three partial responses. However, the authors concluded that survival with this procedure was no better than that reported with conventional treatments. Heideman and colleagues (2) reported on a case series of 13 pediatric patients with bulky disease or recurrent disease treated with SCT plus radiotherapy. While the overall response rate was 31%, the authors similarly concluded that overall survival was no better than conventional treatment regimens. Finlay and colleagues (3) reported on a 1996 case series of 45 children and young adults with a variety of recurrent CNS tumors, including gliomas, medulloblastomas, ependymomas, and primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Of the 18 patients with high-grade gliomas, the response rate was 29%. The median survival of this group was 12.7 months. Of the five long-term survivors, all had high-grade glioma with minimal residual disease at the time of transplantation. Based in part on these results, the authors recommended aggressive surgical debulking before this procedure is even considered. Studies focusing on the use of autologous SCT in adults with glioblastoma multiforme reported results similar to those in children, being most successful in those with minimal disease at the time of treatment, with an occasional long-term survivor. (4, 5)
A review by Brandes and colleagues (6) concluded that the high drug doses used in this treatment caused excessive toxicity that was not balanced by a significant improvement in survival. Additional reports on small, uncontrolled series of patients with pontine gliomas (7), recurrent oligodendrogliomas, (8) or those undergoing radiation therapies for high-grade gliomas (9) also did not suggest that this treatment improves survival. In a Phase II study, Abrey and colleagues (10) evaluated hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in 39 patients with newly diagnosed oligodendroglioma. The authors reported the median follow-up of surviving patients was 80.5 months and with 78 months progression-free survival. The overall survival median had not been reached and 18 patients (46%) had relapsed.
A nonrandomized study compared survival outcomes of 27 children (age, 0.4–22 years) with recurrent malignant astrocytomas who underwent myeloablative chemotherapy and AuSCS with outcomes in a matched historical cohort (n=56) that received standard chemotherapy regimens following tumor recurrence. (11) Among the 27 children who received myeloablative chemotherapy and AuSCS, 5 (18%) succumbed to treatment-related toxicities within approximately 2 months of transplantation, 17 (63%) had disease progression, while 5 survived and were alive a median of 11 years (range: 8–13 years) after transplantation. Overall survival rates at 4 years were 40 ± 14% for transplant patients versus 7 ± 4% with conventional chemotherapy (p=0.018, hazard ratio [HR]: 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–3.2). The results of this study suggest myeloablative chemotherapy with AuSCS can produce long-term survival among children with recurrent malignant astrocytoma. However, lack of a contemporaneous treatment comparison group precludes conclusions as to the relative efficacy of this approach.
A comprehensive review article identified in the literature search did not report any evidence for the role of HSCT in this disease. (12)
National Cancer Institute (NCI) Physician Data Query (PDQ®) Clinical Trials Database
A search in December 2014 found one active U.S. Phase II trial of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for newly diagnosed central nervous system tumors, including glioblastoma multiforme and gliosarcoma (NCT00669669). This study has an estimated completion date of December 2017.
National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Guidelines:
The 2014 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Guidelines on Central Nervous System Tumors (v.2.2014) do not list hematopoietic SCT as a treatment option for patients with astrocytomas or gliomas. (13)
The data on the use of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for malignant astrocytomas and gliomas has in general shown no survival benefit compared to conventional therapy, with increased treatment-related toxicity. Therefore hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation is considered experimental, investigational and/or unproven for the treatment of malignant astrocytomas and gliomas, which includes both glioblastoma multiforme and oligodendroglioma.
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Disclaimer for coding information on Medical Policies
Procedure and diagnosis codes on Medical Policy documents are included only as a general reference tool for each policy. They may not be all-inclusive.
The presence or absence of procedure, service, supply, device or diagnosis codes in a Medical Policy document has no relevance for determination of benefit coverage for members or reimbursement for providers. Only the written coverage position in a medical policy should be used for such determinations.
Benefit coverage determinations based on written Medical Policy coverage positions must include review of the member’s benefit contract or Summary Plan Description (SPD) for defined coverage vs. non-coverage, benefit exclusions, and benefit limitations such as dollar or duration caps.
The following codes may be applicable to this Medical policy and may not be all inclusive.
36511, 38204, 38205, 38206, 38207, 38208, 38209, 38210, 38211, 38212, 38213, 38214, 38215, 38220, 38221, 38230, 38232, 38240, 38241, 38242, 38243, 81265, 81266, 81267, 81268, 81370, 81371, 81372, 81373, 81374, 81375, 81376, 81377, 81378, 81379, 81380, 81381, 81382, 81383, 86805, 86806, 86807, 86808, 86812, 86813, 86816, 86817, 86821, 86822, 86825, 86826, 86828, 86829, 86830, 86831, 86832, 86833, 86834, 86835, 86849, 86950, 86985, 88240, 88241
S2140, S2142, S2150
ICD-9 Diagnosis Codes
Refer to the ICD-9-CM manual
ICD-9 Procedure Codes
Refer to the ICD-9-CM manual
ICD-10 Diagnosis Codes
Refer to the ICD-10-CM manual
ICD-10 Procedure Codes
Refer to the ICD-10-CM manual
The information contained in this section is for informational purposes only. HCSC makes no representation as to the accuracy of this information. It is not to be used for claims adjudication for HCSC Plans.
The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) does not have a national Medicare coverage position. Coverage may be subject to local carrier discretion.
A national coverage position for Medicare may have been developed since this medical policy document was written. See Medicare's National Coverage at <http://www.cms.hhs.gov>.
1. Bouffet E, Mottolese C, et al. Etoposide and thiotepa followed by ABMT (autologous bone marrow transplantation) in children and young adults with high-grade gliomas. Euro J Cancer. 1997; 33(1):91-5.
2. Heideman RL, Douglass EC, et al. High-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow rescue followed by interstitial and external-beam radiotherapy in newly diagnosed pediatric malignant gliomas. J Clin Oncol. 1993; 11(8):1458-65.
3. Finlay JL, Goldman S, et al. Pilot study of high-dose thiotepa and etoposide with autologous bone marrow rescue in children and young adults with recurrent CNS tumors. The Children’s Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol. 1996; 14(9):2495-503.
4. Linassier C, Benboubker L, et al. High-dose BCNU with ABMT followed by radiation therapy in the treatment of supratentorial glioblastoma multiforme. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1996; 18(suppl 1): S69-72.
5. Fernandez-Hidalgo OA, Vanaclocha V, et al. High-dose BCNU and autologous progenitor cell transplantation given with intra-arterial cisplatinum and simultaneous radiotherapy in the treatment of high-grade gliomas: benefit for selected patients. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1996; 18(1):143-9.
6. Brandes AA, Palmisano V, et al. High-dose chemotherapy with bone marrow rescue for high-grade gliomas in adults. Cancer Invest. 2001; 19(1):41-8.
7. Bouffet E, Raquin M, et al. Radiotherapy followed by high dose busulfan and thiotepa: a prospective assessment of high dose chemotherapy in children with diffuse pontine gliomas. Cancer. 2000; 88(3):685-92.
8. Cairncross G, Swinnen L, et al. Myeloablative chemotherapy for recurrent aggressive oligodendroglioma. J Neuro-Oncol. 2000; 2(2):114-9.
9. Jakacki RI, Siffert J, et al. Dose-intensive, time-compressed procarbazine, CCNU, vincristine (PCV) with peripheral blood stem cell support and concurrent radiation in patients with newly diagnosed high-grade gliomas. J Neuro-Oncol. 1999; 44(1):77-83.
10. Abrey LE, Childs BH, et al. High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue as initial therapy for anaplastic oligodendroglioma: long-term follow-up. J Neuro-Oncol. 2006; 8(2):183-8.
11. Finlay JL, Dhall G, Boyett JM et al. Myeloablative chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow rescue in children and adolescents with recurrent malignant astrocytoma: outcome compared with conventional chemotherapy: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008; 51(6):806-11.
12. Ricard D, Idbaih A, Ducray F et al. Primary brain tumours in adults. Lancet. 2012; 379(9830):1984-96.
13. NIH – Dose-Intensive Chemotherapy in Combination with Chemoprotected Autologous Stem Cells for Patients with Malignant Gliomas (NCT00669669). U.S. National Institutes of Health. Available at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (accessed – 2014 December 5)
14. NCCN – Central Nervous System Cancers – NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology, Version.2.2014. National Comprehensive Cancer Network available at <www.nccn.org> (accessed on – 2014 December 5).
15. Autologous Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation for Malignant Astrocytomas and Gliomas. Chicago, Illinois: Blue Cross Blue Shield Association Medical Policy Reference Manual (2013 July) Therapy 8.01.31-Archived.
|6/1/2016||Reviewed. No changes.|
|1/15/2015||Document updated with literature review. Coverage language modified, without change to coverage position. CPT/HCPCS code(s) updated. Title changed from: Stem-Cell Transplant for Malignant Astrocytomas and Gliomas.|
|10/15/2013||Document updated with literature review. The following was added: 1) Donor leukocyte infusion and hematopoietic progenitor cell boost are considered experimental, investigational and unproven; and 2) Any related services for the treatment of malignant astrocytomas and gliomas, such as short tandem repeat (STR) markers, are considered experimental, investigational and unproven. O therwise, coverage unchanged. Description and Rationale significantly revised. Document title changed from Stem-Cell Transplant for Astrocytomas and Gliomas.|
|4/1/2010||New medical document originating from: SUR703.017, Peripheral/Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation (PSCT/BMT) for Non-Malignancies; SUR703.018, Peripheral/Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation (PSCT/BMT) for Malignancies; SUR703.022, Cord Blood as a Source of Stem Cells (CBSC); SUR703.023, Donor Leukocyte Infusion (DLI); and SUR703.024, Tandem/Triple High-Dose Chemoradiotherapy with Stem Cell Support for Malignancies. Stem cell transplant remains experimental, investigational and unproved when used to treat astrocytomas and gliomas. NOTE: A link to the medical policies with the following titles can be found at the end of the medical policy SUR703.002, Stem-Cell Reinfusion or Transplantation Following Chemotherapy (General Donor and Recipient Information): • Peripheral/Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation (PSCT/BMT) for Non-Malignancies; • Peripheral/Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation (PSCT/BMT) for Malignancies; • Cord Blood as a Source of Stem Cells; • Donor Leukocyte Infusion (DLI); and • Tandem/Triple High-Dose Chemoradiotherapy with Stem Cell Support for Malignancies.|
|Title:||Effective Date:||End Date:|
|Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation for Malignant Astrocytomas and Gliomas||07-15-2017||06-14-2018|
|Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation for Malignant Astrocytomas and Gliomas||06-01-2016||07-14-2017|
|Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation for Malignant Astrocytomas and Gliomas||01-15-2015||05-31-2016|
|Stem-Cell Transplant for Malignant Astrocytomas and Gliomas||10-15-2013||01-14-2015|
|Stem-Cell Transplant for Astrocytomas and Gliomas||04-01-2010||10-14-2013|