Medical Policies - Other


Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking

Number:OTH903.028

Effective Date:06-15-2018

Coverage:

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Corneal collagen cross-linking using riboflavin and ultraviolet A may be considered medically necessary as a treatment of progressive keratoconus or corneal ectasia after refractive surgery.

Progressive keratoconus or corneal ectasia is defined as 1 or more of the following:

An increase of 1 diopter (D) in the steepest keratometry value,

An increase of 1 D in regular astigmatism evaluated by subjective manifest refraction,

A myopic shift (decrease in the spherical equivalent) of 0.50 D on subjective manifest refraction,

A decrease ≥0.1 mm in the back optical zone radius in rigid contact lens wearers where other information was not available.

Corneal collagen cross-linking using riboflavin and ultraviolet A is considered experimental, investigational and/or unproven for all other indications.

Description:

Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) is a photochemical procedure approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of progressive keratoconus and corneal ectasia. Keratoconus is a dystrophy of the cornea characterized by progressive deformation (steepening) of the cornea while corneal ectasia is keratoconus that occurs after refractive surgery. Both lead to functional loss of vision and need for corneal transplantation.

Background

Keratoconus and Ectasia

Keratoconus is a bilateral dystrophy that is characterized by progressive ectasia (paracentral steepening and stromal thinning) that impairs visual acuity. While frequently diagnosed at a young age, the progression of keratoconus is variable. Results from a longitudinal study with 7 years of follow-up showed that, over the study period, there was a decrease of 2 high- and 4 low-contrast letters in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). (1, 2) About 1 in 5 patients showed a decrease of 10 or more letters in high-contrast visual acuity and one-third of patients showed a decrease of 10 or more letters in low-contrast visual acuity. Over 8 years of follow-up, there was a mean increase of 1.44 diopters (D) in First Definite Apical Clearance Lens (a rigid contact lens to measure corneal curvature) and 1.6 D in flatter keratometric reading.

Ectasia (also known as keratectasia, iatrogenic keratoconus, or secondary keratoconus) is a serious long-term complication of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery and photorefractive keratectomy. It is similar to keratoconus, but occurs postoperatively and primarily affects older populations. It may result from unrecognized preoperative keratoconus or, less frequently, from the surgery itself. Similar to keratoconus, it is characterized by progressive thinning and steepening of the cornea, resulting in corneal optical irregularities and loss of visual acuity.

Treatment

The initial treatment for keratoconus often consists of hard contact lenses. A variety of keratorefractive procedures have also been attempted, broadly divided into subtractive and additive techniques. Subtractive techniques include photorefractive keratectomy or LASIK, although generally, results of these techniques have been poor. Implantation of intrastromal corneal ring segments is an additive technique in which the implants are intended to reinforce the cornea, prevent further deterioration, and potentially obviate the need for penetrating keratoplasty. Penetrating keratoplasty (i.e., corneal grafting) is the last line of treatment. About 20% of patients with keratoconus will require corneal transplantation. All of these treatments attempt to improve the refractive errors, but are not disease-modifying.

Treatment options for ectasia include intraocular pressure-lowering drugs, and intracorneal ring segments. Frequently, a penetrating keratoplasty is required.

None of the currently available treatment options for keratoconus and corneal ectasia halt the progression of disease and corneal transplantation is the only option available when functional vision can no longer be achieved.

Corneal CXL has the potential to slow the progression of disease. It is performed with the photosensitizer riboflavin (vitamin B2) and ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation. There are two protocols for CXL:

1. Epithelium-off CXL (also known as “epi-off”): In this method, about 8 mm of the central corneal epithelium under topical anesthesia to allow better diffusion of the photosensitizer riboflavin into the stroma. Following de-epithelialization, a solution with riboflavin is applied to the cornea (every 1-3 minutes for 30 minutes) until the stroma is completely penetrated. The cornea is then irradiated for 30 minutes with 370 nm UVA, a maximal wavelength for absorption by riboflavin, while the riboflavin continues to be applied. The interaction of riboflavin and UVA causes the formation of reactive oxygen species, leading to additional covalent bonds (cross-linking) between collagen molecules, resulting in stiffening of the cornea. Theoretically, by using a homogeneous light source and absorption by riboflavin, the structures beyond a 400-micron thick stroma (endothelium, anterior chamber, iris, lens, retina) are not exposed to a UV dose that is above the cytotoxic threshold.

2. Epithelium-on CXL (also known as “epi-on” or transepithelial): In this method, the corneal epithelial surface is left intact (or may be partially disrupted) and a longer riboflavin loading time is needed.

Currently, the only CXL treatment approved by the FDA is the epithelium-off method. There are no FDA-approved CXL treatments using the epithelium-on method. CXL is being evaluated primarily for corneal stabilization in patients with progressive corneal thinning, such as keratoconus and corneal ectasia following refractive surgery. CXL may also have anti-edematous and antimicrobial properties.

Regulatory Status

In 2016, riboflavin 5’-phosphate in 20% dextran ophthalmic solution (Photrexa Viscous®; Avedro) and riboflavin 5’-phosphate ophthalmic solution (Photrexa®; Avedro) were approved by the FDA for use with the KXL System in corneal collagen cross-linking for the treatment of progressive keratoconus and corneal ectasia after refractive surgery. (3)

Rationale:

This medical policy was created in November 2014 and has been updated periodically using the MEDLINE database. The most recent literature update was performed through January 25, 2017.

Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking for Keratoconus and Ectasia

Pivotal Trials

The evidence base for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of epi-off corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) for the treatment of progressive keratoconus and corneal ectasia after refractive surgery consists of 3 randomized, parallel-group, open-label, sham-controlled trials that are summarized below. In addition, there are systematic reviews, 2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and multiple prospective controlled studies as well as uncontrolled trials reporting on longer term outcomes of the procedure. (4, 5) These RCTs are summarized in the next section.

The 3 open-label RCTs are summarized in Table 1. The primary end point was a 1-diopter (D) reduction in the maximum corneal curvature (Kmax) at month 3. Because corneal stromal remodeling associated with healing response after CXL requires 6 to 12 months to stabilize, the time point for primary end point was changed from 3 to 12 months. This end point was better suited for evaluating the long-term clinical benefits of the CXL treatment. In all 3 trials, only 1 eye per patient was designated as the experimental eye. Patients with corneal ectasia diagnosed after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) or photorefractive keratectomy or those with progressive keratoconus were included in these trials. Progressive keratoconus was defined as 1 or more of the following over a period of 24 months or less before randomization:

An increase of 1 D in the steepest keratometry value,

An increase of 1 D in regular astigmatism evaluated by subjective manifest refraction,

A myopic shift (decrease in the spherical equivalent) of 0.50 D on subjective manifest refraction,

A decrease ≥0.1 mm in the back optical zone radius in rigid contact lens wearers where other information was not available.

Sham-control eyes were treated with a topical anesthetic and riboflavin solution (1 drop every 2 minutes for 30 minutes) but did not undergo epithelial débridement or have the ultraviolet A (UVA) light source turned on. For sham subjects who received CXL treatment at month 3 or month 6, the last Kmax measurement recorded prior to CXL treatment was carried forward in the analysis for later time points. This is a conservative method of analysis in this situation, because it reduces the expected worsening over time in untreated patients. Almost all patients in the sham group received CXL treatment at month 3 or 6 and therefore the analysis compared the Kmax at month 12 in the CXL group to the Kmax at month 3 or 6 in the sham group. In each study, Kmax was assessed at baseline and at months 1, 3, and 12.

Table 1. Summary of Pivotal Trial Characteristics and Results

Author

Study

Design

Dates

Patients (N or n)

Difference in Mean Change in Kmax From Baseline to `1 Months (95% CI)b

Unpublished

UVX-001

RCT

2008-2010

Keratoconus (58) Ectasia (49)

-1.9 D (-3.4 to -0.3) -2.0 D (-3.0 to -1.1)

Hersh (2011)a

UVX-002

RCT

2008-2010

Keratoconus only (147)

-2.3 D (-3.5 to -1.0)

Hersh (2011)a,b

UVX-003

RCT

2008-2011

Ectasia only (130)

-1.1 D (-1.9 to -0.3)

CI: confidence interval; D: diopter; Kmax: maximum corneal curvature; RCT: randomized controlled trial.

a This article (6) reported early results of the trial that included data from 49 of 147 patients in the UVX-002 trial and 22 of 130 patients in the UVX-003 trial. These results are not discussed.

b In UVX-003, 4 patients in the collagen cross-linking group had missing baseline Kmax value and were excluded from the analysis.

Maximum Corneal Curvature (Kmax)

The CXL-treated eyes showed increasing improvement in Kmax from months 3 through 12 (data not shown). Difference of the change in Kmax from baseline to month 12 between CXL-treated eyes and sham-treated eyes is summarized in Table 1 and was statistically significant from 6 month onward in favor of CXL treatment.

Best Spectacle-Corrected Visual Acuity

The visual acuity outcomes as assessed by mean improvement in best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) and responder analysis (gain of ≥15 letters on Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study [ETDRS] is considered clinically meaningful) are summarized in Tables 2 and 3, respectively. Statistical procedures to control for type I error for multiple comparisons were not described in either the sponsor (7) or in the FDA documents. (8, 9) Therefore, these results should not be used for statistical inference. The results summarized in Tables 2 and 3 are based on last observation carried forward (LOCF) analysis. In the pooled analysis of the observed data, the mean change in sham-control patients for progressive keratoconus at 6 months was +1.1 letter (n=38) compared to +5.8 (n=96) for CXL-treated patients, yielding a difference of 4.7 letters in favor of CXL treatment. Respective numbers for patients with ectasia were -0.4 letters (n=88) versus +4 letters (n=91), yielding a difference of 4.4 letters in favor of CXL treatment. Notably, the FDA-approved labels for Photrexa and Photrexa Viscous do not include any visual acuity outcomes. (3)

Table 2. Summary of Results for Visual Acuity Outcomes in the Pivotal Trials (7)

Study

Patients (N)

Mean Change in BSCVA From Baseline to 12 Months

Differencea

CXL-Treated Eyes

Sham-Controlled Eyes

UVX-001

Keratoconus (58) Ectasia (49)

+7.2 +5.0

+3.4 -0.9

+3.8 letters +5.9 letters

UVX-002

Keratoconus only (147)

+5.0

+1.4

+3.6 letters

UVX-003

Ectasia only (130)

+5.0

-0.1

+5.1 letters

Pooled

Keratoconus (205) Ectasia (179)

+5.6 +5.0

+2.0 -0.3

+3.6 letters +5.3 letters

BSCVA: best spectacle-corrected visual acuity; CXL: corneal collagen cross-linking.

a Results should be considered exploratory.

Table 3. Summary of Results for Visual Acuity Outcomes in the Pivotal Trials (7)

Study

Patients (N or n)

Difference From Baseline to 12 Months in Percent

Differencea

CXL-Treated Eyes

Sham-Controlled Eyes

UVX-001

Keratoconus (58) Ectasia (49)

+24.1% +21.7%

+21.4% +4.2%

+2.7% +17.5%

UVX-002

Keratoconus only (147)

+17.4%

+2.8%

+14.6%

UVX-003

Ectasia only (130)

+9.2%

+4.8%

+4.4%

Pooled

Keratoconus (205) Ectasia (179)

19.4% 12.5%

8.1% 4.7%

+11.3% +7.8%

CXL: corneal collagen cross-linking; ETDRS: Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study.

a Results should be considered exploratory.

Other Randomized Controlled Trials

Wittig-Silva et al. reported the first RCT of corneal CXL in 2008. (10) Three-year results were published in 2014. (11) Recruitment for the trial was completed in 2009 with 50 eyes randomized to CXL treatment and 50 randomized to untreated control. To be eligible for enrollment, clear evidence of progression of ectasia over the preceding 6 to 12 months was required. Progression was confirmed if at least 1 of the following criteria were met: an increase of at least 1 D in the steepest simulated keratometry reading (K-max); an increase in astigmatism determined by manifest subjective refraction of at least 1 D; an increase of 0.50 D in manifest refraction spherical equivalent; or a 0.1 mm or more decrease in back optic zone radius of the best-fitting contact lens. At the time of analysis for the 2008 report, 20 eyes had reached 1-year follow-up. The 3-year results included 46 CXL-treated and 48 control eyes. LOCF was used for 26 eyes, including 17 eyes from the control group with progressive disease that underwent compassionate-use CXL or corneal transplantation. In the CXL group, there was a flattening of K-max by -1.03 D, compared with an increase in K-max of 1.75 in the control group. One eye in the CXL group progressed by more than 2 D, compared with 19 eyes in the control group. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) and BCVA improved in the CXL-treated eyes at 1, 2, and 3 years. In control eyes, UCVA was significantly reduced at 36 months (p=0.034) and there was a trend of a decrease in BCVA (p=0.10). The difference between groups in UCVA was significant (p<0.001). Follow-up is continuing through 5 years.

In 2010, Renesto et al. reported 2-year results of a randomized trial that compared CXL versus 1 month of riboflavin eye drops in 39 eyes of 31 patients with keratoconus. (12) After 3 months, all patients received intrastromal corneal ring segments (ICRS). Patients were evaluated at 1 and 3 months after treatment with CXL or riboflavin, and then at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after ICRS insertion. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups for UCVA, BCVA, or in 3 topographic parameters (flattest K, steepest K, and average keratometry) throughout the 24-month follow-up.

Systematic Reviews

A Cochrane review on the use of corneal CXL for the treatment of keratoconus was published in 2015. (13) The literature search for this systematic review was conducted in August 2014 and does not include all of the phase 3 trials that were submitted to the FDA (described previously). Reviewers included 3 small RCTs conducted in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States, which enrolled a total of 225 eyes and analyzed 219 eyes. All 3 trials were at high risk for performance bias (lack of masking, detection bias (only 1 trial attempted to mask outcome assessment), and attrition bias (incomplete follow-up). Reviewers did not conduct a meta- analysis due to differences in measuring and reporting outcomes. The overall quality of the evidence was judged to be very low, primarily due to downgrading the evidence due to risk of bias in the included studies, imprecision, indirectness, and publication bias.

In 2016, Meri et al. reported results of a systematic review and meta-analysis of ocular functional and structural outcomes in patients with keratoconus who underwent CXL treatment. (14) Reviewers reported a modest but statistically nonsignificant improvement in visual acuity of 1 to 2 Snellen lines at 3 months or more after undergoing CXL. Reviewers concluded that, although CXL appeared to be effective at halting the deterioration of keratoconus, it was only slightly effective at improving visual acuity.

McAnena et al. (2016) reported results of a systematic review and a meta-analysis assessing the efficacy of CXL treatment for keratoconus in pediatric patients. (15) A total of 13 articles, published between May 2011 and December 2014, examining 490 eyes of 401 patients (mean age, 15.25 years), were included in the meta-analysis. Bias assessment of individual studies was not included. Reviewers reported a significant improvement in BCVA at 6 months (standardized mean difference [SMD], -0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.22 to -0.11; p=0.02), which was maintained at 1 year (SMD = -0.69; 95% CI, -1.15 to -0.22; p<0.01). Two-year data were available for 3 studies (n=131 eyes) and the improvement in BCVA remained significant (SMD= -1.03; 95% CI, -2 to -0.06; p=0.04).

Uncontrolled Studies

Long term follow-up is being reported from Europe, where corneal CXL has been performed for a greater number of years. Indications for treatment typically include progression of steepening (increase in K-max by at least 1 D in 1 year), deteriorating visual acuity, or the need to be fitted for new contact lenses more than once in 2 years. The largest and longest series to date are described next.

In 2016, Padmanabhan et al. retrospectively analyzed 377 eyes of 336 patients (mean age, 15 years) who underwent CXL for progressive keratoconus. (16) There was significant improvement in mean BSCVA from 0.33 to 0.27 logMAR (p<0.05). The authors found that the benefits of CXL in stabilizing keratoconus were maintained for more than 2 years in most pediatric eyes.

In 2008, Raiskup-Wolfe et al. reported outcomes of 241 eyes (130 patients) treated with CXL, with a minimum of 6 months of follow-up. (17) This was of a total of 488 eyes (272 patients) with progressive keratoconus and a corneal thickness of at least 400 μm treated at their center in Germany. Follow-up examinations were performed at 1, 6, and 12 months, and then annually. Mean follow-up was 26 months, with a range of 12 months (n=142) to 6 years (n=5). In the first year (n=142), steepening (K-max) improved or remained stable in 86% of eyes, and BCVA improved by at least 1 line in 53% of the eyes. Three years after treatment (n=33), K-max improved by a mean of 2.57 D in 67% of eyes while BCVA improved by at least 1 line in 58% of eyes. In 2015, the same group published a 10-year follow-up of CXL treatment in 34 eyes (24 patients) with progressive keratoconus. (18) Mean patient age at the time of treatment was 28 years (range, 14-42 years). Corneal steepening improved slightly between baseline and year follow-up (p<0.001), while corrected distance visual acuity improved by 0.14 logMAR (p=0.002). Two eyes had repeat CXL, one after 5 years and one after 10 years, without adverse sequelae. One of the 34 eyes treated developed a permanent corneal scar. These studies are limited by the retrospective nature and the small number of cases with extended follow-up.

A 2010 publication from the Siena Eye Cross Study reported a 52-month mean follow-up (range, 48-60 months) on their first 44 keratoconic eyes treated with CXL. (19) Follow-up evaluations were performed at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months after CXL. Topographic analysis showed the following mean K reading reductions: -1.96 D after 1 year, -2.12 D after 2 years, -2.24 D after 3 years, and -2.26 D after 4 years of follow-up. By comparison, in fellow eyes untreated for the first 24 months, the mean K value increased by 1.2 D at 1 year and 2.2 D at 2 years. In treated eyes, UCVA improved by a mean of 2.41 lines after 12 months, 2.75 lines after 24 months, 2.80 lines after 36 months, and 2.85 lines after 48 months. There was no significant decrease in endothelial cell density, central corneal thickness, or intraocular pressure over follow-up. Temporary adverse effects included stromal edema in the first 30 days (70% of patients) and temporary haze (9.8% of patients). No persistent adverse effects were observed.

A 2012 publication from the Siena CXL Pediatrics trial reported 12- to 36-month follow-up after CXL in 152 patients aged 18 years or younger with keratoconus progression. (20) Visual acuity increased by an average of 0.15 Snellen lines, whereas a clinically relevant change is generally considered to be 2 Snellen lines.

The French National Reference Center for Keratoconus published their findings in 2011. (21) Of 142 eyes enrolled in the study, 6-month follow-up was available for 104 (73%), and 12-month follow-up was available for 64 (45%). At 12 months after treatment, the BCVA had stabilized in 48% of eyes, improved in 40%, and decreased in 12%. Keratoconus progression had stopped in 69%, and K-max had decreased by more than 2 D in 21% of eyes. There was a 7% complication rate in the total sample, with 5 eyes (3.5% of 142 or 7.8% of 64) losing 2 or more Snellen lines of visual acuity. This retrospective study is limited by the low proportion of patients available at 12-month follow-up.

Adverse Events

The safety analysis conducted by the FDA included 512 eyes (293 keratoconus, 219 corneal ectasia) in 364 patients who received CXL treatment. (3, 8) As described earlier, the procedure involves removing the corneal epithelium to enhance the riboflavin solution’s penetration. As a result, patients may develop a range of ocular adverse reactions, including corneal opacity (haze), corneal epithelial defects, punctate keratitis, corneal striae, eye pain, reduced visual acuity, blurred vision, dry eye, and photophobia among others. Most adverse reactions resolved in the first month, while others took up to 12 months to resolve. However, in 1% to 6% of patients, these adverse reactions could continue beyond 12 months.

Summary of Evidence

For individuals who have keratoconus who receive collagen cross-linking (CXL) using riboflavin and ultraviolet A, the evidence includes multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) systematic reviews, and nonrandomized studies. Relevant outcomes are change in disease status, functional outcomes, and treatment-related morbidity. In both pivotal RCTs, the primary end point (an intermediate outcome) of reducing maximum corneal curvature (Kmax) by 1 diopter (D) was achieved at month 3 and maintained at months 6 and 12 in CXL-treated patients, compared to sham controls. In the 2 RCTs, the difference in mean change in Kmax from baseline to 12 months was 1.9 and 2.3 D, respectively, favoring the CXL-treated patients. Long-term follow-up for visual acuity outcomes are needed. The adverse events associated with CXL include corneal opacity (haze), corneal epithelial defects, and other ocular findings. Most adverse events resolved in the first month but, in a few (1%-6%) patients, continued for 6 to 12 months. The evidence is sufficient to determine that the technology results in a meaningful improvement in the net health outcome.

For individuals who have corneal ectasia after refractive surgery who receive CXL using riboflavin and ultraviolet A, the evidence includes multiple RCTs, systematic reviews, and nonrandomized studies. Relevant outcomes are change in disease status, functional outcomes, and treatment-related morbidity. In both pivotal RCTs, the primary end point (an intermediate outcome) of reducing Kmax by 1 D was achieved at month 3 and maintained at months 6 and 12 in the CXL-treated patients compared to sham controls. In the 2 RCTs, the difference in mean change in Kmax from baseline to 12 months was 2.0 and 1.1 D, respectively, favoring CXL-treated patients. Long-term follow-up for visual acuity outcomes are needed. The adverse events associated with CXL include corneal opacity (haze), corneal epithelial defects, and other ocular findings. Most adverse events resolved in the first month, but, in a few (1%-6%) patients, continued for 6 to 12 months. The evidence is sufficient to determine that the technology results in a meaningful improvement in the net health outcome.

Practice Guidelines and Position Statements

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

In 2013 the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) updated and replaced its 2009 guidance on corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL). (22) The 2013 guidance stratified NICE recommendations for corneal CXL as follows:

“Most of the published evidence on photochemical corneal collagen cross-linkage (CXL) using riboflavin and ultraviolet A (UVA) for keratoconus and keratectasia relates to the technique known as 'epithelium-off' CXL'. 'Epithelium-on (transepithelial) CXL' is a more recent technique and less evidence is available on its safety and efficacy. Either procedure (epithelium-off or epithelium-on CXL) can be combined with other interventions, and the evidence base for these combination procedures (known as 'CXL-plus') is also limited. Therefore, different recommendations apply to the variants of this procedure, as follows.

1.1: Current evidence on the safety and efficacy of epithelium-off CXL for keratoconus and keratectasia is adequate in quality and quantity. Therefore, this procedure can be used provided that normal arrangements are in place for clinical governance, consent and audit.

1.2: Current evidence on the safety and efficacy of epithelium-on (transepithelial) CXL, and the combination (CXL-plus) procedures for keratoconus and keratectasia is inadequate in quantity and quality. Therefore, these procedures should only be used with special arrangements for clinical governance, consent and audit or research.”

Ongoing and Unpublished Clinical Trials

Some currently unpublished trials that might influence this review are listed in Table 4.

Table 4. Summary of Key Trials

NCT No.

Trial Name

Planned Enrollment

Completion Date

Ongoing

NCT01972854a

A Multi-Center, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of the KXL System With VibeX (Riboflavin Ophthalmic Solution) for Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking in Eyes With Keratoconus

206

Mar 2017

NCT00560651

German Corneal Cross-Linking Registry

7500

Nov 2017

NCT01604135

Collagen Crosslinking for Keratoconus - a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

200

May 2019

Unpublished

NCT01459679

A Multi-Center, Randomized, Controlled Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of the KXL System With VibeX (Riboflavin Ophthalmic Solution) for Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking in Eyes With Keratoconus or Corneal Ectasia After Refractive Surgery

4000

Jan 2016 (terminated)

NCT01344187a

A Multi-Center, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of the KXL System With VibeX (Riboflavin Ophthalmic Solution) for Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking in Eyes With Keratoconus

226

Jun 2016 (completed)

NCT: national clinical trial.

a Denotes industry-sponsored or cosponsored trial.

Contract:

Each benefit plan, summary plan description or contract defines which services are covered, which services are excluded, and which services are subject to dollar caps or other limitations, conditions or exclusions. Members and their providers have the responsibility for consulting the member's benefit plan, summary plan description or contract to determine if there are any exclusions or other benefit limitations applicable to this service or supply. If there is a discrepancy between a Medical Policy and a member's benefit plan, summary plan description or contract, the benefit plan, summary plan description or contract will govern.

Coding:

CODING:

Disclaimer for coding information on Medical Policies

Procedure and diagnosis codes on Medical Policy documents are included only as a general reference tool for each policy. They may not be all-inclusive.

The presence or absence of procedure, service, supply, device or diagnosis codes in a Medical Policy document has no relevance for determination of benefit coverage for members or reimbursement for providers. Only the written coverage position in a medical policy should be used for such determinations.

Benefit coverage determinations based on written Medical Policy coverage positions must include review of the member’s benefit contract or Summary Plan Description (SPD) for defined coverage vs. non-coverage, benefit exclusions, and benefit limitations such as dollar or duration caps.

CPT/HCPCS/ICD-9/ICD-10 Codes

The following codes may be applicable to this Medical policy and may not be all inclusive.

CPT Codes

0402T

HCPCS Codes

None

ICD-9 Diagnosis Codes

Refer to the ICD-9-CM manual

ICD-9 Procedure Codes

Refer to the ICD-9-CM manual

ICD-10 Diagnosis Codes

Refer to the ICD-10-CM manual

ICD-10 Procedure Codes

Refer to the ICD-10-CM manual


Medicare Coverage:

The information contained in this section is for informational purposes only. HCSC makes no representation as to the accuracy of this information. It is not to be used for claims adjudication for HCSC Plans.

The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) does not have a national Medicare coverage position. Coverage may be subject to local carrier discretion.

A national coverage position for Medicare may have been developed since this medical policy document was written. See Medicare's National Coverage at <http://www.cms.hhs.gov>.

References:

1. Davis LJ, Schechtman KB, Wilson BS, et al. Longitudinal changes in visual acuity in keratoconus. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. Feb 2006; 47(2):489-500. PMID 16431941

2. McMahon TT, Edrington TB, Szczotka-Flynn L, et al. Longitudinal changes in corneal curvature in keratoconus. Cornea. Apr 2006; 25(3):296-305. PMID 16633030

3. Avedro Inc. Photorexa® Viscous and Photorexa® Prescribing Label. Available at <http://www.accessdata.fda.gov> (accessed February 2, 2017).

4. Chunyu T, Xiujun P, Zhengjun F, et al. Corneal collagen cross-linking in keratoconus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep. 2014; 4:5652. PMID 25007895

5. Papaioannou L, Miligkos M, Papathanassiou M. Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking for Infectious Keratitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Cornea. Jan 2016; 35(1):62-71. PMID 26509768

6. Hersh PS, Greenstein SA, Fry KL. Corneal collagen crosslinking for keratoconus and corneal ectasia: One-year results. J Cataract Refract Surg. Jan 2011; 37(1):149-160. PMID 21183110

7. Inc A. Avedro Briefing Package for Joint Meeting of the Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee and Ophthalmic Device Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee NDA 203324: Photrexa Viscous and Photrexa (riboflavin ophthalmic solution) and KXL System (UVA light source) Avedro, Inc. 2015; Available at <http://www.fda.gov> (accessed February 7, 2017).

8. Center for Drug Evaluation and Research: FDA. Summary Review: Application Number 203324Orig2s000. Available at <http://www.accessdata.fda.gov> (accessed February 2, 2017).

9. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Briefing package: Riboflavin opthalmic solution/KXL system for the treatment of progressive keratoconus or corneal ectasia following refractive surgery. 2015; Available at <http://www.fda.gov> (accessed February 7, 2017).

10. Wittig-Silva C, Whiting M, Lamoureux E, et al. A randomized controlled trial of corneal collagen cross-linking in progressive keratoconus: preliminary results. J Refract Surg. Sep 2008; 24(7): S720-725. PMID 18811118

11. Wittig-Silva C, Chan E, Islam FM, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of corneal collagen cross-linking in progressive keratoconus: three-year results. Ophthalmology. Apr 2014; 121(4):812-821. PMID 24393351

12. Renesto Ada C, Barros Jde N, Campos M. Impression cytologic analysis after corneal collagen cross-linking using riboflavin and ultraviolet-A light in the treatment of keratoconus. Cornea. Oct 2010; 29(10):1139-1144. PMID 20622670

13. Sykakis E, Karim R, Evans JR, et al. Corneal collagen cross-linking for treating keratoconus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015; 3:CD010621. PMID 25803325

14. Meiri Z, Keren S, Rosenblatt A, et al. Efficacy of corneal collagen cross-linking for the treatment of keratoconus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cornea. Mar 2016; 35(3):417-428. PMID 26751990

15. McAnena L, Doyle F, O'Keefe M. Cross-linking in children with keratoconus: a systematic review and meta- analysis. Acta Ophthalmol. Sep 28 2016. PMID 27678078

16. Padmanabhan P, Rachapalle Reddi S, Rajagopal R, et al. Corneal collagen cross-linking for keratoconus in pediatric patients-long-term results. Cornea. Dec 01 2016. PMID 27918352

17. Raiskup-Wolf F, Hoyer A, Spoerl E, et al. Collagen crosslinking with riboflavin and ultraviolet-A light in keratoconus: long-term results. J Cataract Refract Surg. May 2008; 34(5):796-801. PMID 18471635

18. Raiskup F, Theuring A, Pillunat LE, et al. Corneal collagen crosslinking with riboflavin and ultraviolet-A light in progressive keratoconus: ten-year results. J Cataract Refract Surg. Jan 2015; 41(1):41-46. PMID 25532633

19. Caporossi A, Mazzotta C, Baiocchi S, et al. Long-term results of riboflavin ultraviolet a corneal collagen cross- linking for keratoconus in Italy: the Siena eye cross study. Am J Ophthalmol. Apr 2010; 149(4):585-593. PMID 20138607

20. Caporossi A, Mazzotta C, Baiocchi S, et al. Riboflavin-UVA-induced corneal collagen cross-linking in pediatric patients. Cornea. Mar 2012; 31(3):227-231. PMID 22420024

21. Asri D, Touboul D, Fournie P, et al. Corneal collagen crosslinking in progressive keratoconus: multicenter results from the French National Reference Center for Keratoconus. J Cataract Refract Surg. Dec 2011; 37(12):2137- 2143. PMID 22108109

22. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Photochemical Corneal Collagen Cross-Linkage Using Riboflavin and Ultraviolet A for Keratoconus and Keratectasia, IPG466. 2013; Available at <http://publications.nice.org.uk> (accessed February 22, 2017).

23. Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking. Chicago, Illinois: Blue Cross Blue Shield Association Medical Policy Reference Manual (2017 March) Other 9.03.28.

Policy History:

DateReason
6/15/2018 Reviewed. No changes.
11/1/2017 Document updated with literature review. The following changes were made to Coverage: 1) Corneal collagen cross-linking using riboflavin and ultraviolet A may be considered medically necessary as a treatment of progressive keratoconus or corneal ectasia after refractive surgery. 2) Corneal collagen cross-linking using riboflavin and ultraviolet A is considered experimental, investigational, and/or unproven for all other indications. 3) A specific definition of progressive keratoconus or corneal ectasia was added.
7/15/2016 Document updated with literature review. Coverage unchanged.
7/15/2015 Reviewed. No changes.
11/15/2014 New medical document. Corneal collagen cross-linking is considered experimental, investigational and/or unproven for all indications.

Archived Document(s):

Title:Effective Date:End Date:
Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking11-01-201706-14-2018
Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking07-15-201610-31-2017
Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking07-15-201507-14-2016
Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking11-15-201407-14-2015
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